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20th century

  • Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945, is widely viewed as one of the most evil men in history. Driven by rabid anti-Semitism and a belief in the inherent superiority of the Aryan race, Hitler was directly responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War and masterminded the Holocaust,...
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  • The Algerian-born French writer and thinker Albert Camus remains one of the most important French authors of the 20th century. Often associated with existentialism (although he did not fully identify with this philosophical movement), he was also a courageous activist and social critic, speaking out against totalitarianism in all its forms and fighting for justice and equality for all. In...
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  • Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist who is now famous across the world as one of the greatest scientists of all time. Known in particular for his development of the theories of general relativity and special relativity, Einstein completely shattered previously held conceptions about the universe and was also renowned for his committed political stances. In just 50 minutes, you...
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  • Apartheid was a system of racial segregation which was maintained in South Africa between 1948 and 1991. It aimed to regulate relationships between whites and non-whites and ensure the domination of the country's white minority. Particularly infamous for the extreme cruelty that black South Africans were made to suffer, the apartheid regime was probably one of the most significant events of the...
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  • Bloody Sunday, also known as the Bogside Massacre, was a key event in Irish-British relations and marked the start of what would later be known as the Troubles. During a supposedly peaceful demonstration in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 13 civilians, the majority of whom were younger than 20 years old, were shot and killed by the British Parachute Regiment. This bloody attack set...
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  • Dwight David Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States and a member of the Republican Party. He was a hero of the Second World War and a very important figure in the liberation of Europe. He was also regarded as a great diplomat and, when he was elected, he became the first Republican president in 20 years.  In...
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  • Gandhi

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    Mahatma Gandhi was one of the emblematic figures of Indian independence and remains an icon of nonviolent resistance. Through actions such as the Salt March and his celebrated Quit India speech, Gandhi helped his compatriots to throw off the yoke of British colonialism and become an independent nation. His peaceful protests brought him renown all over the world and inspired many...
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  • Georges Lemaître was a Belgian priest, astronomer and professor of physics. Lemaître is known most of all for developing the Big Bang theory, which is now widely accepted and has led to the creation of a new field of research: cosmology. He proposed that the universe expanded from a single point, which he called the "Primeval Atom". Although part of...
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  • Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of the USSR and had a major impact on the path that Russia took at the end of the 20th century. He was a somewhat controversial figure, known in the West as the man who ended the Cold War while being one of the least popular 20th century leaders in Russia. This is understandable, as Gorbachev...
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  • Henry Ford was an American industrialist and the founder of the Ford Motor Company. His innovative approach to manufacturing made cars accessible to ordinary people, revolutionized industry and caused the explosion of mass production. He doubled his workers’ salaries, introduced the division of labor and indirectly caused the development of mass consumption. In just 50 minutes, you will find out how...
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  • On 6 August 1945, the world's first atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The second bomb followed days later, hitting Nagasaki on 9 August 1945. The attacks caused the complete destruction of two major Japanese cities, brought about the immediate surrender of Japan and the end of the Second World War, and led to the beginning of the...
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  • John F. Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States. Although he actively fought against Communism and established the Peace Corps, Kennedy is probably known most of all for his unexpected assassination in 1963, during his visit to Texas, when he was shot in the head by Lee Harvey Oswald. His murder sent shockwaves around the world. In just 50 minutes, you will...
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