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19th century

  • Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States and remains one of the most important figures in American history. Known in particular for leading the Union to victory in the American Civil War and ending slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation, this iconic leader oversaw a period of profound social change, economic modernization and territorial expansion, and paved the...
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  • In 1859, Charles Darwin’s seminal book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was published and presented the groundbreaking idea that all species on Earth are the result of a slow process of evolution and continue to evolve as part of the struggle now commonly known as the survival of the fittest. Darwin’s conclusions were the fruit...
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  • Francisco Goya lived and worked in Spain during the 18th and early 19th centuries, and produced some of the country’s most important artistic masterpieces. As part of his work as court painter for the Spanish Crown, he produced a number of fine portraits, while his personal works tend to focus on darker themes and social criticism. In just 50 minutes,...
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  • James Monroe was the 5th President of the United States of America. Known in particular as a great diplomat – he was ambassador, Senator and Secretary of State before being elected – Monroe led America during a time known as the “Era of Good Feelings”. In spite of the relative prosperity of these years, Monroe had to deal with tensions...
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  • Napoleon Bonaparte was a military and political leader and Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814. He steered France through a time of intense internal and external conflict and took part in decisive military engagements such as the Battle of Austerlitz. Besides his military campaigns throughout Europe, he also established civil institutions which exist in France to this day, such...
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  • The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was a crucial episode of the Napoleonic Wars and is widely seen as one of Napoleon Bonaparte's greatest successes. On 2 December 1805, Napoleon's Grande Armée showed its tactical and technological superiority over its enemies, inflicting a crushing defeat on the forces of the Russian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. However, the battle...
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  • The Battle of Gettysburg is widely regarded as one of the turning points of the American Civil War between the Union in the North and the Confederacy in the South. From the outbreak of the war until mid-1863, the Confederate troops had the upper hand over their Union counterparts, but when they attempted to break into Union territory, they were...
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  • The decisive victory of the forces of the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put a stop to Napoleon Bonaparte's military ambitions, marked the end of the Hundred Days and saw the French emperor exiled to the island of Saint Helena, where he died in 1821. The battle had major consequences across Europe: it marked a significant decline of French...
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  • Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States. Known in particular for being the youngest president in the history of the USA, Roosevelt was a very important historical figure, to such an extent that his image is immortalized on Mount Rushmore. Roosevelt was not only a Republican who contributed a great deal to the assertion of American imperialism, but also...
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  • Thomas Jefferson was the 3rd President of the United States and one of the country's Founding Fathers. Known in particular for his role in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a talented political writer who served as Vice-President under John Adams before being elected President in 1801. He also significantly increased the size of his home country:...
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