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  • Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party and Führer of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945, is widely viewed as one of the most evil men in history. Driven by rabid anti-Semitism and a belief in the inherent superiority of the Aryan race, Hitler was directly responsible for the outbreak of the Second World War and masterminded the Holocaust,...
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  • Bloody Sunday, also known as the Bogside Massacre, was a key event in Irish-British relations and marked the start of what would later be known as the Troubles. During a supposedly peaceful demonstration in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 13 civilians, the majority of whom were younger than 20 years old, were shot and killed by the British Parachute Regiment. This bloody attack set...
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  • Dwight David Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States and a member of the Republican Party. He was a hero of the Second World War and a very important figure in the liberation of Europe. He was also regarded as a great diplomat and, when he was elected, he became the first Republican president in 20 years.  In...
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  • Gandhi

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    Mahatma Gandhi was one of the emblematic figures of Indian independence and remains an icon of nonviolent resistance. Through actions such as the Salt March and his celebrated Quit India speech, Gandhi helped his compatriots to throw off the yoke of British colonialism and become an independent nation. His peaceful protests brought him renown all over the world and inspired many...
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  • James Monroe was the 5th President of the United States of America. Known in particular as a great diplomat – he was ambassador, Senator and Secretary of State before being elected – Monroe led America during a time known as the “Era of Good Feelings”. In spite of the relative prosperity of these years, Monroe had to deal with tensions...
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  • John Locke was a philosopher and scientist who is considered to be one of the greatest 17th-century English thinkers. Known in particular for his reflections on political philosophy, Locke took an interest in a range of different areas, including empiricism, social contract theory and liberalism. In just 50 minutes, you will find out how his actions revolutionized philosophical thought during...
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  • Learn about the ideas of Karl Marx in just 50 minutes with this practical and concise book. Marx was a German economist and socialist revolutionary who had a significant influence on political thought, and particularly on Communism. His work includes a broad range of different political ideas, including the distribution of wealth and man's relationship with his environment, and gave rise to the...
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  • Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was known in particular for being the longest serving British Prime Minister of the 20th century, not to mention for being the first woman to have ever held the office. It did not take long for...
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  • Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. He rose to prominence as a military commander during the English Civil War, winning a series of impressive victories with his New Model Army. Cromwell was a political pragmatist and a skilled communicator, which facilitated his rise to power during the Commonwealth and the Protectorate. He eventually became...
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  • Stalin

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    Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 and the leader of the USSR from 1924 to 1953. Known in particular for his rule of terror over the USSR, Stalin governed Russia with an iron fist, propelling the country into rapid industrialization through his infamous five-year plans, introducing forced labor camps known as...
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  • The Crusades were a religious, political and miltary conflict between the three great powers of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries: Catholic Europe, the Muslim world and the Orthodox Byzantine Empire. The birth of Islam had a profound effect on the beginning of the Crusades, as the Muslim faith began to spread to the West and Muslim troops began to invade...
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  • The fall of the Berlin Wall put an end to almost 30 years of physical and ideological separation between the two halves of the German capital. Constructed at the height of the Cold War, the Berlin Wall symbolized the hostility between the capitalist powers in the West and the Communist powers in the East. Its fall saw people flood across...
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